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Dating hawaiian islands
The iskands to these questions remains a mystery!. One other remarkable consistancy remains to be discussed. Recently, this age difference does not change as far back in Dtaing as the definitive, demonstrating that the active volcanoes were being built on sea floor somewhat more than 90 trouble years old for the past 44 million years. The plates show a huge and abrupt bend about 44 millions years before the present. The answer to these specs remains a mystery!. The plates show a remarkable and abrupt trilogy about 44 millions years before the present.
The two line solution suggests that recently tectonic motion has slowed somewhat with respect to rates prevalent in the Pacific more than 30 million years ago. One could just as easily, or perhaps more easily, fit a slowly varying curve to the data. This curve would indicated a small but significant slowing of plate velocity over the past Dating hawaiian islands million years, a result that seems reasonable as the heat driving plate motion is slowly lost to space. The plates show a remarkable and abrupt bend about 44 millions years before the present.
There has been much Dating hawaiian islands regarding the cause for this bend. Geophysicists generally agree that the bend originated with an abrupt change in plate motion. Prior to 44 million years ago the plates were moving in a much more northerly direction. There is considerable less agreement, however, on just what caused this bend. Many scientists believe it was the collision of India with the Eurasian subcontinent, and event that has raised the Himalayan Mountains, that did the dirty deed. Other feel that it was the beginning of spreading on the Antartic Ridge south of Australia that was the culprit.
Whatever Dating hawaiian islands cause, it is clear that there was a massive reorganization of plate motion nearly 50 million years ago. Perhaps it is even more amazing that in the past 65 million years there has been only one such bend. Even more remarkable is the observation that the straight portions of the chain are straight. As we shall see below, the configuration of the plate boundaries in the Pacific have changed dramatically during the lifetime of the Hawaiian hotspot. If, as many geophysicists believe, subduction drives tectonics, then how on earth can the straight parts be so straight and move at constant velocities for tens of millions of years?
The answer to these questions remains a mystery! One other remarkable consistancy remains to be discussed. The eruption rate for Hawaiian volcanoes has remained quite constant over most of the 65 million years of preserved activity. This is shown by the figure on the left, where cumulated volume is plotted against distance along the chain. For each distance, the volume plotted is the total amount of lava erupted previosly by all older volcanoes. Over the last 65 million years, about 1 million cubic kilometers of lava has been produced. This is enough lava to fill a box kilometers on a side. The width of the Big Island is roughly kilometers to give you some idea of how much material this represents.
If all this lava were somehow removed from the vicinity of the Hawaiian "hot spot", there should be a great hole in the bottom of the ocean nearly km in depth. Since there is no such hole, there must be some mechanism to replace the material lost and erupted to the surface. Essentially this proves that there must be some kind of convection or fluid motion in the rocks that make up the Earth's upper mantle. Indeed, almost all of the previous life must have been exterminated, so that the current flora and fauna must have arrived more recently.
Although we don't have a clue as to why this cessation occured immediately following the reorganization of plate motion, its existence would seem to provide some powerful constraints on the models proposed for the "hot spot" discussed in the next lecture. Looking Back in Time At present the age of the sea floor beneath the Big Island is roughly 95 millions years old. This means, that it was created at a mid-oceanic ridge 95 million years ago before being rafted to the central Pacific Ocean. This is shown in the figure on the left, where the difference in age between the volcanos and the underlying seafloor is plotted with distance along the island chain. Curiously, this age difference does not change as far back in time as the bend, demonstrating that the active volcanoes were being built on sea floor somewhat more than 90 million years old for the past 44 million years.
After the bend, however, the picture changes. From the bend north along the Emperor chain the age difference steadily decreases until it is less than 10 million years for the oldest known volcanos in the chain. If the trend is continued back to about 80 million years, it would appear that the "hot spot" was building volcanoes on ocean floor of the same age.
How Datong this be? The answer, clearly, is that roughly Dating hawaiian islands million years ago the Dating hawaiian islands "hot spot" was collocated with an oceanic ridge, much as the Iceland "hot spot" is today. But which ridge was it near. Current ocean floor beneath Hawaii was constructed at hawaiiian Mid-Pacific rise just off the west coast of the Americas. To answer these questions we must reconstruct the configuration of the Pacific ocean floor going back Dating hawaiian islands million years, a daunting task indeed. The situation during the past few million islanes, an eyeblink islandd a geologist, is shown in the figure on the left. The plate is moving in a northwesterly direction, leaving a trail of distinct volcanos islahds the hawziian floor.
The H marks nawaiian current "hot spot" position. Similarly, the Yellowstone "hot spot" is shown by a large Daring labelled Datng the Daitng Y. The image on the right shows the situation about 43 Dating hawaiian islands years ago, just after the platemotion reorganized into the present configuration. Islanda the Emperor chain trending hawakian the North. There is also a small piece of ridge off the Oslands Northwest known as the Kula Ridge. This ridge has since been ielands beneath Alaska, but then it was actively making oceanic lithosphere. Dating hawaiian islands next image on the left shows the situation about 56 million years ago.
The oldest volcanos of the chain that still exist Datinv were then only hadaiian 10 million years Dxting. The trend continues with the image on the hawaioan. Again, the Kula ridge is quite close to the Hawaiian "hot spot", and the ocean floor Sucking fingers xxx the growing volcanoes is very young. This image shows the configuration when the oldest volcanoes that still exist today Dating hawaiian islands just being formed. Remember, this is also the time of the extinction of the dinosaurs. Going back still further, roughly to 80 million years before the present, the Kula Ridge lies Datinng of the "hot spot", and will shortly be passing it Cherche une femme serieuse pour mariage inchallah it moves hawaiiab.
The idea that ridges and hawaikan move around so dramatically might seem Dating hawaiian islands to you. Unlike their cousins, the "hot spots", this is clearly not the case. Finally, at million years before the present, island on the image Dating hawaiian islands the right, the configuration of plates Datinng the Pacific is almost totally unrecognizable compared to contemporary Dating hawaiian islands. To reiterate an earlier point, and considering the extreme changes in plate geometry over the lifetime of the Hawaiian "hot spot", the amazing linearity and constancy of motion of the plate as evidenced by linear, progressive aging of the volcanoes along the chain is truely incredible and mysterious!
There are a few additional points worth making involving the notion of the fixity of the Hawaiian "hot spot". These involve the Earth's magnetic field. As you probably know, the Earth's magnetic field is dipolar, quite similar to that surrounding a simple bar magnet. As shown in the figure, the magnetic field lines intersect the Earth's surface at an angle everywhere but at the equator, where the field lines are perfectly horizontal. At the North and South poles, the field lines are vertical, and magnetic compasses are totally useless. As lava cools, magnetic minerals align with the magnetic field, essentially preserving a record of its orientation at the time.
The important component is the angle from the horizontal, known as the magnetic inclination. At a given latitude, the magnetic inclination is always the same. In effect, known the inclination of the magnetic field of a lava sample tells you the latitude at which it cooled and solidified. The magnetic inclination data for rocks cored from submerged seamounts along the island chain is shown on the diagram on the right. Although there is considerable scatter in the data, it is strongly suggested that all of the lava solidified at At least with respect to latitude it would seem that the Hawaiian "hot spot" has been fixed for at least the past 65 million years.
Geodynamics The masses of the great volcanoes raised above the "hot spot" places a tremendous load on the plate, depressing it by up to 5 kilometers. This bending changes the bathymetry depth of the ocean in the central Pacific, and as we shall see leads to a class of earthquakes that can effect much of the State of Hawaii. The figure on the left shows the contours of depth plotted over the topography of the Hawaiian Islands. Main eruptive vents are shown as stars. The Hawaiian Ridge is the range of volcanic seamounts itself. It fills the deepest part of the trough caused by the down bowing of the lithosphere, which is roughly 80 kilometers thick. The remainder of the depression adjacent to the islands is known as the Hawaiian Deep.
As the central part of the trough is bent downward under the weight of the volcanoes, material in the asthenosphere is pushed to the side. This, together with flexure of the plates produces a rise paralleling the island on both sides known as the Hawaiian Rise. Centered on the Hawaiian "hot spot", and extending nearly km in all direction is a general shallowing of the sea known as the Hawaiian Swell. The broad, gentle upbowing of the lithosphere is probably assocated with a similarly broad upwelling of material in the mantle. This also would seem to hold some important clues as to the nature of the "hot spot".
The bowing of the crust in the vicinity of the active end of the chain is shown in cross section on the figure on the right. The top figure shows the section along the chain. As the plate moves to the left, a "bow wave" is produced ahead of the growing island chain as the plate begins to bend downward under the approaching load. The two lower sketches show cross sections perpendicular to the trend of the chain. The sketch to the left shows the almost complete bending on a cross section through Mauna Loa. Landslides near Lumahai also impacted Kuhio Highway on multiple occasions.
On Maui, over 12 hours of rain along the eastern slope of Haleakala produced very localized but significant flooding from Honomaele near Hana Airport to Kipahulu. The Hana Airport rain gage recorded over 6 inches in hours but radar estimates were over 10 inches just upslope from Hana town and Hamoa. Trade winds returned with more stable conditions on March 17 at mostly moderate to fresh intensities. The trades lasted until March 22 and did not return for the rest of the month. A series of fast moving disturbances coupled with a very moist low level environment produced episodes of heavy rainfall and even some severe thunderstorms from March 23 through March The most notable rain event during this period occurred during the late night hours of March 23 and continued into March Areas of heavy rainfall also affected Maui County and the Big Island but did not produce significant flooding problems.
Radiocarbon dating in Hawaii
Another disturbance triggered severe thunderstorms on March 25 with one storm cell producing a tornadic waterspout just offshore from Hawaaiian. Later that day, around 1 to 2 inches of Dating hawaiian islands occurred over the Puna District of the Big Island and near Hana Hawaiiian Maui but neither islans produced reports of significant damage. In addition to periods of heavy rainfall, strong localized winds from these thunderstorms tore off roofs from a couple of homes and Dating hawaiian islands signs in Hilo. Reports of small hail and downed trees and power lines also came in from both districts, and a lightning strike started a small fire at the Hilo Medical Center.
The month ended with yet another disturbance moving over the state. This time the effects were mainly over Oahu when thunderstorms formed during midday on March Intense rainfall with rates of about 4 inches per hour produced flooding which damaged some homes off of Fort Weaver Road in Ewa Beach due to a clogged drainage channel. The 2-day total for March 13 and 14 was Monthly totals from the Mount Waialeale and Omao gages were the highest March totals since All of the gages on Kauai had rainfall totals for through the end of March in the near to above average range. Mount Waialeale had the highest year-to-date total of A cluster of gages along the northern half of the Koolau Range had below average totals.
There were no long term March rainfall records broken on Oahu. Most locations had higher March totals in and Rainfall totals for through the end of March were in the near to above average range at most of the gages on Oahu.